Software Architecture Structures

This post talks about the various Software Architecture Structures, and how these structures relate in the creation of an architecture. Software Architecture Structures can be divided into 3 broad categories

1) Modules

2) Component and Connectors

3) Allocations

1) Modules — These are the units of implementation. These represent code based views of the system. The intent here is not related to any runtime considerations. Module based structures can be further sub-divided into

  1. Decomposition –The units addressed here are that of submodules of a particular module. The intent is to break modules into smaller units such that each unit can be understood. This normally is the starting point of high level design and subsequent low level design. It also incorporates things like implementations, test plans etc. In addition a decomposition can also address questions related to changes made to the system. The intent should be to keep the changes local to a few sub-modules.
  2. Uses — One unit uses another if the correctness of one depends on the existence of the correct version of another. The uses structure can be used to extend the capabilities of a system as well as extract subsets of functionality which can be used for incremental development
  3. Layered — When the Uses structure is carefully modeled, normally layers emerge. These layers are areas of common functionality. Layered structures can be used to assess the dependence of one layer on the other as well as ensuring that the interactions of one layers are only with the layers above or below this layer. In addition, a layer at n should only depend for services on the n-1 layer and none other.
  4. Class or Generalization — The units in this structure are classes. Classes can be used to reason about collection of similar behavior or capabilities. Class structures is used for assessing reuse and incremental addition of functionality.

2) Components and Connectors –Component-and-connector structures help answer questions such as What are the major executing components and how do they interact? What are the major shared data stores? Which parts of the system are replicated? How does data flow through the system? What parts of the system can run in parallel? How can the system’s structure change as it executes? These can be further sub-divided into

  1. Processes –The process structure shows processes connected to each other through connectors, snychronizers,exclusions etc. This structure is important when looking at a systems performance and availibility.
  2. Concurrency — This structure allows for determining the areas where there can be a resource contention or where parallelism can be employed.
  3. Shared data — This comprises connectors and components that create,store or access shared persistent data. It shows how data is produced and consumed by the runtime components and can be used to ensure performance and data integrity.
  4. Client -Server — This structure shows the components as client server units and the connectors are the underlying protocols which are used for communication.

3) Allocation Structures — This structure shows the relation between the software elements and the environment in which the software executes. These can be classified as follows

  1. Deployment — The deployment structure shows how software is assigned to hardware-processing and communication elements. The elements are software, hardware entities and communication pathways. Relations are allocated-to, showing on which physical units the software elements reside. This view allows one to reason about performance, data integrity, availability, and security.
  2. Implementation —This structure shows how usually modules are mapped to the file structure in the system’s development, integration, or configuration environments. This is critical for the management of development activities and build processes
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